History Of Fireplaces In Arts And Crafts
Fireplaces were an important feature of Arts and Crafts design. In the period from which the Motion drew its creativity the fireplace was simply starting to be sited on the sidewalls of fabulous halls in the houses of the extremely rich. So the type adopted by Arts and Crafts was a 19th century day pastiche of what was really constructed during the Wars of the Roses. Designs were often in brick although gemstone could be used where it was a regional material. The fireplaces were huge, frequently rounded and needed an inglenook feel. Bricks might vary in size, with courses laid vertically and also conventionally or perhaps in a herringbone pattern. Later designs typically featured tiles and the kind of sinuous designs that are associated with Charles Rennie Macintosh and Art Nouveau. Tiles might have a pastoral scene or a complex flower motif and the Rockwood Pottery that produced very early designs was closely associated with Morris & Co, the business that William Morris ran from 1875. We still live with the Arts & Crafts legacy in mock Tudor residences, twentieth century wall panelling and old brick fireplaces. Like virtually all styles of the last 2 hundred years the popularity declines just to reappear up to one hundred years later on.
Charles Rennie Mackintosh is regarded as one of the greatest impacts on architecture this century. His all too short career spanned the turn of the century and generated a range of innovative structures and interiors around his birthplace of Glasgow. Some see Mackintosh as a modernist, others as the link between Art Nouveau and Art Deco. He was undoubtedly neither, drawing his creativity as much from classical shapes as the brand-new industrial art which was beginning to prevail all over Europe.
Mackintosh was not merely an architect. His design shine extended to the interiors of the buildings that he created. Together with his better half Margaret, Mackintosh thought that the interior format was as important as the exterior form and created personal products to compliment the total look of the establishment. Fireplaces were, in his opinion, the 'glowing concentration with attractive and symbolic hobby'. It was important for him that each design really should meld into the room and be personalised for the needs of the owner. His most renowned brief was Hill Home in Dumbarton, which he fashioned for the publisher, Blackie. In this house each fireplace is different. The living-room design needs niches for ornaments, while the fireplace in the collection links areas of the room to form a whole. Each has been thought through and tailored so that is part of the room, not simply a fitting.
Today's fireplaces in the Mackintosh style be inclined to reflect his graphic type rather than his design style. Art Nouveau roses interpreted by Mackintosh are common features and evoke turn of the century type. His designs for mantelpieces and full fireplaces are too individual for 'off the shelf' creation and will continue to be special in the houses where they were installed.
Whilst the name of Charles Rennie Macintosh initially comes to mind when very early 1900s architecture is mentioned, it is potentially Edwin Lutyens that has left the greatest impression on country houses and official establishments in the UK and beyond. Macintosh, from his base in Glasgow rose like a shooting star around the turn of the 20th century just to disappear as quickly after only 10 to 15 years of architectural design. Lutyens, often together with back garden designer Gertrude Jykell, created residences in a terrific late Victorian / Edwardian vernacular type that still electrifies today.
An examination of many of Lutyens Country House designs highlights the value that he, and more significantly his customers, placed on the design of fireplaces. Numerous of his major, prominent designs - Castle Drogo, Great Dixter, Little Thakeham and others - feature in excess of 10 fireplaces - many specially fashioned to compliment the ambience of the room.
Barton St. Mary near East Grinstead is a case in point. Created in a delivered, South of England style, Barton St. Mary appears like two cottages joined together. Internally, substantial gemstone inglenooks, wide range of oak beams and vaulted ceilings evoke an time much earlier than its actual turn-of-the-20th century construction. In the dining room a big fireplace by having projecting rack and converging firesides in herringbone brickwork has a gorgeous simplicity that is practically timeless.
Constructed for local industrialist, Arthur Hemmingway, Heathcote near Ilkley is entirely a different proposition from Barton St. Mary. Completed in neighborhood stone, it is an imposingly grand house by having echoes of a stately home. Internally neo-classical design reigns by having pillars and ornate coving. In the Dining Room we view a easy bolection design by having a large Adamesque fireplace design superimposed over it. This is a unusual combination, potentially stipulated by Mr. Hemingway himself. Bolection designs, by having their unpretentious moulded shape were remarkably prominent, some within larger Adam-style designs, others forming the complete fireplace were common in further Lutyens houses - Great Maytham in Kent, Nashdom in Taplow, Berkshire and Temple Dinsley in Hertfordshire. Lutyens was commonly involved in modernisation of older residences where once again the simplicity of the bolection design aided blend new by having old. Also today, bolection fireplaces are very much idolized.
Lutyens designs were certainly extremely influential within the select moneyed class who applied him. Nevertheless, it was Minsterstone together with a myriad of other neighborhood manufacturers of stone, marble and brick designs who adapted his designs for the smaller fireplaces to cater for the emerging middle class. Many of the fireplace manufacturers from this time have faded away leaving Minsterstone, by having its 120-year history as a lone survivor from a time when the gap between rich and inadequate was much larger than it is today.
The dawning of the twentieth century even viewed a variety of different stylistic influences on the fireplace in a means that no further century had experienced. The hefty, gothic type that so typified the middle of the Victorian age was still being generated in vast numbers. Yet present and well-liked with the cognoscenti was the effective Art Nouveau look, which had taken the country by storm, following the Paris Exhibition of 1881.
The roots of Art Nouveau lay in the wonderful European capitals of Vienna and Paris where the artistic elite rebelled against the restraints of the previous generation. The movement took on board the cast iron fireplaces, for so long the trade mark of the suburban development of our big towns, and added sinuous ornamentation, which gave these utilitarian products a modern look. Tiles on tile sliders began to appear in a wide range of designs motivated by rural pictures and also classic Art Nouveau references such as the grapevine.
William Morris' Arts & Crafts movement continued to apply an influence well in to the twentieth century. The inglenook had been a prominent revival feature of Arts and Crafts' fireplaces as it created seating around the fire - often the only hot part of the house. In fact Morris' fans wanted several features of medieval and Tudor fireplaces which they adjusted and included into their designs - some including features like overmantels which would never have been part of the initial.
The 1920s sought a different technique that incorporated business by having art. After the First World war, revival was still the name of the game for the middle classes who desired their suburban residences gentrified with mock Tudor beams and fireplaces. Nonetheless, the rich and the creative longed for designs that mirrored the twin principles of work and leisure.
Art Deco filled this void and was born at the 1925 Paris based exhibition titled 'L'Exposition Internationale des Arts Deco et Industriels Modernes'. At the time, the type was commonly called Paris 25. The concepts behind the Art Deco featured:
The sacrifice of elaborate detail to function.
The rejection of history in favor of contemporary ideas
The adaptation and adoption of industry - its designs and methods.
Art Deco design was virtually instantly converted into a wealth of designs, which utilized traditional fireplace materials, but in a more spectacular, avant-garde method. Simple understated lines were set off by the use of reflective chrome, lacquered wood or tiles to provide a modern feeling, which shouted 'Modern!' without being too ornate.
Like numerous of the further trends, Art Deco usually tended to be the preserve of the well off. The recently enriched suburban middle classes were more most likely to need a uncomplicated tiled fireplace, typically in green beige or buff. Designs may mirror the Art Deco influence of the Mexican stepped pyramid or might be asymmetric, influenced by the social realism movement. Many 1930s tiled fireplaces likewise featured a wooden encompass or mantelshelf in English oak.
In the shires the fire surround was more most likely to be in a local material, - brick in the South of England, gemstone in the North and tiles around partitioning stoke on trent. Designs in these locations were not so influenced by creative trends. Functional features such as bread ranges and hooks for hanging cooking pots lingered on in complete or partial usage within the country cottage well into the 1930s and 40s.
World War II experienced a thorough halt in the house structure program as resources were funnelled into replacing and repairing bombed residences and in the late 1940s the push to re-house families members viewed a move away from standard fireplaces in favor of the 'easy to install' electric fire. Nonetheless as the UK came to be more prosperous throughout the 1950s local authorities and private house artisans began to install tiled fireplaces again creating a regular need for the slabbed designs produced by members of the National Fireplace Manufacturer's Association, which had been formed in 1945. These fireplaces were made down to spec rather than including any sort of design panache and, by the middle of the decade, even the wooden mantel rack had disappeared. HFAC7946
O.C. retailers prep for Small Business Saturday (ocregister)
Lolo Boutique in Fullerton will host a champagne reception. Toy Boat Toy Boat
Toy Boat, a Corona del Mar toy store, is serving up free food and children's
arts and crafts projects. World of Wigs in Santa will have an open house with
door prizes and...
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What are some arts& craft projects that will be good for kids ages 3-5?
I'm working with a bunch kids ages 3-5 and I need some ideas for arts& craft projects that would be good for kids in this age range. Thanks for your help!
Cotton paper plate bunny